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Q: seized engine!

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I have a vauxhal meriva 1.3 manual , diesel. it was making a rattling sound on and of so i had an oil change as adviced by garage the noise calmed right down after... The car had been treated by two garages on two seperate occassions for smoking exhaust ( white smoke) as diesels are prone to clogging up on short journeys! as both said after a few days smoke went. I went out and parked car ,restarted it up no joy. car was towed to garage they said starting motor failure, as he went to replace motor, he could not do it as engine was seized up by hand. What are the reasons from your professional view to why the engine seized up suddenly? they mentioned Timing belt/chain OR possibly Crankshaft,thrown rod,spun bearing OR SEIZED piston from detonation etc would you agree ?
My car has a manual transmission.

All of the components you have mentioned are possibilities but the root cause could have been, for example, a failure of the lubrication system. On disassembly of the engine for rebuilding it will of course be immediately apparent what caused the seizure but you should pay particular attention to the oil pump and, if you do proceed with rebuilding, be sure that none of the oil galleys are blocked as that could be disastrous if you rebuilt the engine only to have the failure recur. The block has to be carefully cleaned and inspected.

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