Without fuel, an internal combustion engine will not run. For this reason, parts used in the fuel system are built for durability and can stand up to years of near-constant use. Some parts, like the fuel filter, exist to extend the life of other parts in the fuel system. The fuel system should be inspected regularly, but different parts need different levels of maintenance.
What parts need to get inspected:
The fuel filter needs to be inspected and replaced the most often out of all the parts in the fuel system. It should be replaced every 10,000-15,000 miles.
The hoses running fuel to components in the engine bay should be inspected regularly, preferably whenever the car is being professionally serviced.
Fuel injectors should be inspected annually, but if there are issues with fuel delivery they should definitely get checked out by a mechanic.
If fuel is leaking under the car, the hard fuel lines should be inspected.
The fuel pump will last around 100,000 miles, but if it begins surging fuel towards the engine or not delivering enough fuel, it needs to get inspected regardless of the mileage.
A fuel tank will last at least 10 years. To extend the life of a fuel tank, avoid water and excess moisture at all cost.
With regular inspections and maintenance, the fuel system will last for a long time and provide the vehicle with consistent performance. Emissions control and other systems rely on proper fuel delivery as well.