The canister purge solenoid is an emissions control component that is commonly found on the evaporative emission control system (EVAP) of many modern vehicles. Modern vehicles are equipped with an EVAP system that works to reduce the evaporative emissions pollution that can come from the vehicle’s fuel tank, which is released in the form of vapors. The EVAP system traps this vapor in a charcoal canister and recirculates it for use as fuel for the engine and prevented from polluting the environment.
The canister purge solenoid — also referred to as an EVAP canister valve — is responsible for “purging” the EVAP system by acting as the switch that allows the vapor into the engine. When the purge solenoid fails, it will cause problems for the EVAP system, which will affect the vehicle’s emissions output levels. Usually, a bad purge solenoid will display any of the following 5 symptoms that can alert the driver of a potential problem in need of servicing.
1. Rough Idle
One of the first symptoms that a faulty canister purge valve may produce is a rough idle. In this case, you will notice the car running inconsistently while stopped or driving at low speeds. If the canister purge valve fails and sticks open, it will create a vacuum leak that can affect the engine idle speed and quality. A vacuum leak can also be caused by a broken or damaged purge solenoid or any of the hoses attached to it. It needs to be addressed as soon as possible, as it could lead to your engine stalling completely.
2. Poor Engine Performance
On top of a rough idle, a vehicle with a failing EVAP canister purge valve will display signs of poor engine performance. The engine may feel like its running “weak” and won’t generate sufficient power for acceleration. Accelerating will feel like you’re pressing the pedal down and moving slower. The disrupted combustion process caused by the failing purge solenoid will lead to slow acceleration that needs to be addressed for repairs right away.
3. Difficulty Starting
Another symptom commonly associated with a bad vapor canister purge solenoid is difficulty starting the car. Again, if a vacuum leak is created as a result of any problem with the canister purge solenoid, that may cause the vehicle to have difficulty starting reliably. A vacuum leak will allow unmetered, outside air into the engine, which can disturb the air-fuel ratio and cause performance issues by interrupting the internal combustion process. Eventually, the engine may refuse to start entirely.
4. Check Engine Light Comes On
A defective canister purge solenoid may also set off the Check Engine Light. If the computer detects any problem with the purge solenoid circuit or signal, it will set off the Check Engine Light to alert the driver that a problem has occurred. A Check Engine Light can also be caused by a wide variety of other problems, so it is recommended to have the vehicle scanned for trouble codes to be sure.
5. Low Fuel Economy
Poor gas mileage is another sign of a failing canister purge valve. The fuel vapors your car usually uses for combustion will end up vented through the EVAP canister instead. Instead of reaching the combustion chamber, gasoline gets burned up before it engages in the combustion process. This means your car will not use fuel efficiently, and instead wastes gasoline.
The canister purge solenoid is an emissions component and is, therefore, an important piece in making sure that the vehicle meets emission requirements. The purge valve prevents toxic hydrocarbons in fuel from leaking out your tailpipe. For this reason, if you suspect that your canister purge solenoid may be having a problem, have the vehicle diagnosed by a professional technician to determine if the canister purge solenoid or vacuum hose needs to be replaced.