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Q: Car is critically losing oil but never depleted entirely when refilled.

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I'm not sure if it's leaking from the oil pan or if it's leaking from the timing gasket seal, however the car after an oil change will lose nearly all the oil that is put in. The dip stick typically reads that the oil level is below LOW most commonly it stays at the very minimum line. It doesn't leak too much when the engine is active, but over night or when the car is off, there will be an adequate amount of oil under the lower passenger side of vehicle. I briefly inspected it and noticed oil on the exhaust under the car, and oil all over the axel and around components in that region. The pan was covered in oil so I cleaned it with brake cleaner and it hasn't returned to the pan since but it has remained around the seal of the pan. There is also oil on the cover that houses the timing belt but only on the lower portion. Is it my pan, timing seal, or possibly both???

My car has 188000 miles.
My car has an automatic transmission.

It sounds like you may have an oil leak, potentially at either the oil pan gasket area or at the lower end of the timing cover. The leak may be more noticeable when the car is not running since the oil (due to gravity) flows back down to the bottom of the pan when sitting. The same is also true for the timing cover since when the car is running the oil is circulated throughout the motor and not sitting in one place. As you know, when the car is in motion and the leak continues, this will cause the oil to be spread all over due to the wind, gravity and oil pressure. A certified YourMechanic technician can come to your location to perform an oil/fluid leak inspection on your vehicle to help you diagnose this issue.

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